An outcome of major clinical importance that is defined on the basis of the disease being studied (e.g. fracture in osteoporosis, relapse rates).
A conclusion that an intervention has an effect that is of practical meaning to patients and health care providers. Effects identified as statistically significant are not always clinically significant, because the effect is small or the outcome is not important.
A carefully controlled and monitored research study on human subjects or patients evaluating one or more health interventions. Each trial is designed to answer specific scientific questions.
The ability of one treatment, relative to another, to demonstrate clinical effectiveness
the alternative to which the intervention is compared
the value of opportunity forgone as a result of engaging resources in an activity
An economic evaluation comparing alternative interventions in which costs and outcomes are quantified using the same monetary units
An economic evaluation in which the components of costs and consequences (health outcomes, adverse effects etc.) are measured and presented in their natural units, without any attempt to aggregate the outputs
An economic evaluation comparing the costs of different interventions that are assumed to produce equivalent benefits
A determination of the economic impact of a disease or health condition, including treatment costs.